Document Type : Articles


1 Ph.D. Student in Knowledge and Information Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Knowledge and Information Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Prof., Department of Education, Yadegar-e Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Professor, Knowledge and Information Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


The knowledge flow is a key success factor for organizations and institutions. Lack of proper knowledge flow in an organization and among different individuals, organizations, and businesses will cause gaps in information and information access. One such gap is the gap in the innovation system. Mediators, as one of the innovation system variables, can play a role in filling these gaps. One of the mediators is knowledge brokers. On the other hand, every business needs a specific business model for implementation depending on its nature. The present study proposed an e-commerce business model canvas for knowledge brokers to improve knowledge flow. In the present study, meta-synthesis and Delphi methods were used, respectively. The sampling methods used in the Delphi part were homogenous and snowball, based on which the experts were 10. The results showed that 7 variables (out of 48) and 22 indicators (out of 156) were removed. Finally, 134 indicators and 41 variables were classified based on Osterwalder's business model canvas variables and presented within the model.


Bielinska-Dusza, E. (2019). The business model of “innovation broker”- theoretical Aspects. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Humanitas Zarządzanie, 20(4), 115-131.
Boari, C. & Riboldazzi, F. (2014). How Knowledge Brokers Emerge and Evolve: The Role of Actors Behavior. Research Policy, (43), 683-695.
Cillo, P. (2015). Fostering market knowledge use in innovation: The role of internal brokers.  European Management Journal, 4(23), 404-412.
Dalziel, M. (2010). Why do innovation intermediaries exist? In Druid Summer Conference 2010 on Opening Up Innovation: Strategy, Organization and Technology. Imperial College London Business School, London. Retrieved from
Drew, H., Ritchie, F. & King, A. (2014). How do knowledge brokers work? The Case of WERS. Economics Working Paper Series, 1-16. University of the West of England, faculty of business and law. Retrieved from
Fuscaldo, D. (2023). Everything you need to know about E-commerce. Business News Daily Staff Website. Retrieved from
Gesualdo, N., Weber, M. S. & Yanovitzky, I. (2019). Journalists as knowledge brokers. Journalism Studies, 21(1), 1-17. Rutledge Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved from
Graham, P., Noren, A. & Hutchinson, M. (2004). Hackers & Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age. O'Reilly Media, Inc. Retrieved from
Howells, J. (2006). Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research Policy, 35(5), 715-728.
Jain, V., Malviya B. & Arya, S. (2021). An Overview of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce). Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 27(3), 665-670.
Jalili, S. M. (2016). Proposing a success model for start-up businesses in Iran using the dynamics approach. Master thesis. Tehran. AL Zahra University. [in Persian]
Landeta, J. (2006). Current validity of the Delphi method in social sciences. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 73(5), 467-482.
Lavis, J. N. (2006). Research, public policymaking, and knowledge-translation processes: Canadian efforts to build bridges. The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 26(1), 37-45. Retrieved from:
Mohammadiyan, A., Maniyan, A. & Khodabermi, M. (2014). Designing a business model of virtual development in Iran. Quarterly of Technology Development, 12(47), 1-11. Retrieved from [in Persian]
Noblit, G. W. & Hare, R. D. (1988). Meta-Ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. Sage Publications.
Nowruzi, E., Tabatabaeian, S. H. & Ghazinoori, S. S. (2016). Evaluating the effect of mediators' functions in eliminating weaknesses of the Iranian innovation system. Journal of Science and Technology Policy, 8(1), 15-26. Retrieved from
            [in Persian]
Osterwalder, A. & Pingneur, Y. (2013). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for visionaries, Game Changers and Challengers. John Wiley and Sons publication.
Pawlowski, S. D. & Robey, D. (2004). Bridging user organizations: knowledge brokering and the work of information technology professionals. Management Information Systems Research Center, 28(4), 645-672. Retrieved from
Rafi'e, Z. (2017). Factors and barriers of knowledge-sharing among teachers, case study: physics teachers in the city of Neyshabur. Studies of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 21, 19-33. Retrieved from
            [in Persian]
Rahimi, N. (2020). The role of organizational culture in the establishment of knowledge management in Iran's health insurance organization. Strategic Management Studies of National Defense, 4(15). 199-218. htpps://  20.1001.1.74672588.1399.
rsberg, B. C., Biermann, O., Kuchenmuller, T. & El-Khatib, Z. (2020). Indicators to Evaluate Organizational Knowledge Brokers: A Scoping Review. Health Policy and Systems, 18(1), 93.
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J.(2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. New York: NY: Springer.
Smits, R. & Kuhlmann, S. (2004). The rise of systemic instruments in innovation policy. International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 1(1-2), 4-32. Retrieved from
Suurs, R. A. A. (2009). Motors of sustainable innovation towards a theory on the dynamics of technological innovation systems. Doctoral dissertation. Utrecht University. Retrieved from
Upward, A. & Jones, P. H. (2016). An ontology for strongly sustainable business models: defining an enterprise framework compatible with natural and social science. Organization & Environment, 29(1), 1-27. Retrieved from
Vaziri Gudarzi, A. & Movahedi Sobhani, F. (2014). Proposing a conceptual model for making knowledge brokers effective in the process of knowledge-sharing. Research Journal of Innovation Management, 3(3), 101-120. Retrieved from
Ward, V., Smith, S., House, A. & Hamer, S. (2012). Exploring knowledge exchange: A useful framework for practice and policy. Social Science & Medicine, 74(3), 297-304.
 Ye, J. H, Kankanhalli, A. & Yang, Z. (2012). Knowledge Brokering for open innovation: A case study of innovation intermediaries. In 33rd International Conference on Information Systems. Retrieved from